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Jumat, 26 Februari 2010

Penjelasan Tentang Protestan

Etimologi
Protestant iconoclasm : the Beeldenstorm during the Dutch reformation . Protestan ikonoklasme: yang Beeldenstorm selama reformasi Belanda.

The term Protestant is derived from the Latin protestari [ 1 ] [ 2 ] meaning publicly declare/protest which refers to the letter of protestation by Lutheran princes against the decision of the Diet of Speyer in 1529, which reaffirmed the edict of the Diet of Worms in 1521, banning Martin Luther's documents. Istilah Protestan berasal dari bahasa Latin protestari [1] [2] yang berarti secara terbuka menyatakan / protes yang mengacu pada surat protes oleh Lutheran pangeran melawan keputusan Diet Speyer tahun 1529, yang menegaskan dekrit dari Diet Worms pada tahun 1521, melarang Martin Luther dokumen. Since that time, the term Protestantism has been used in many different senses, often as a general term merely to signify people who believe in Christ who exist outside of the Catholic or Orthodox Churches. Sejak saat itu, istilah Protestan telah digunakan dalam berbagai indra, sering kali sebagai istilah umum hanya untuk menandai orang-orang yang percaya kepada Kristus yang ada di luar Katolik atau Ortodoks Gereja.
[ edit ] Protestant doctrines [Sunting] Protestan doktrin

Although the doctrines of Protestant denominations are far from uniform, some beliefs extending across Protestantism are the doctrines of sola scriptura and sola fide . Meskipun doktrin dari denominasi Protestan jauh dari seragam, beberapa keyakinan memperpanjang di Protestantisme adalah doktrin sola scriptura dan sola fide.

* Sola scriptura maintains that the Bible (rather than church tradition or ecclesiastical interpretations of the Bible) [ 3 ] is the final source of authority for all Christians. Sola scriptura berpendapat bahwa Alkitab (dan bukan tradisi gereja atau gereja interpretasi dari Alkitab) [3] adalah sumber otoritas final untuk semua orang Kristen.
* Sola fide holds that salvation comes by faith alone in Jesus as the Christ, rather than through good works. Sola fide mengatakan bahwa keselamatan datang oleh iman dalam Yesus sebagai Kristus, bukan melalui perbuatan baik.

Protestant churches generally reject the Catholic and Orthodox doctrines of apostolic succession and the sacramental ministry of the clergy. [ 4 ] Exceptions are found mostly in countries, such as in the southern parts of Europe, that came under non-Catholic influences long before the Reformation. Umumnya gereja-gereja Protestan dan Katolik menolak doktrin Ortodoks suksesi apostolik dan sakramental pelayanan ulama. [4] Pengecualian kebanyakan ditemukan di negara-negara, seperti di bagian selatan Eropa, yang berada di bawah pengaruh non-Katolik jauh sebelum Reformasi .

Luther's theses debated and criticized the Church and the Pope, but concentrated upon the selling of indulgences and the doctrines of purgatory , particular judgment , Mariology (devotion to Mary , Jesus' Mother), the intercession of and devotion to the saints , most of the sacraments , the mandatory clerical celibacy including monasticism , and the authority of the Pope . Dalil Luther berdebat dan mengkritik Gereja dan Paus, tetapi terkonsentrasi pada penjualan indulgensi dan doktrin api penyucian, penghakiman khusus, Mariologi (devosi kepada Maria, Yesus 'Ibu), perantaraan dan devosi kepada orang-orang kudus, sebagian besar sakramen, klerus wajib selibat termasuk monastisisme, dan otoritas Paus.

Protestant ministers and church leaders have somewhat different roles and authority in their communities than do Catholic, Anglican and Orthodox priests and bishops. Protestan menteri dan para pemimpin gereja agak berbeda peran dan otoritas dalam masyarakat mereka daripada Katolik, Anglikan dan Ortodoks imam dan uskup.
[ edit ] Conservative/Liberal [Sunting] Konservatif / Liberal

Protestantism has both conservative and liberal theological strands within it. Protestan telah baik konservatif dan liberal untai teologis di dalamnya. Protestant styles of public worship tend to be simpler and less elaborate than those of Roman Catholics, Anglicans, and Eastern Christians, sometimes radically so, though there are exceptions to this tendency. Gaya Protestan ibadah umum cenderung sederhana dan tidak begitu rumit dibandingkan dengan Katolik Roma, Anglikan, dan Kristen Timur, kadang-kadang secara radikal demikian, walaupun terdapat pengecualian terhadap kecenderungan ini.
[ edit ] Dissension in the ranks of Protestantism [Sunting] perselisihan di jajaran Protestanisme

The reformers soon disagreed among themselves and divided their movement according to doctrinal differences—first between Luther and Zwingli, later between Martin Luther and John Calvin —consequently resulting in the establishment of different and rival Protestant denominations such as the Lutheran , Reformed , Anabaptist , and others. Segera para reformator tidak setuju di antara mereka sendiri dan membagi gerakan mereka sesuai dengan doktrinal-pertama perbedaan antara Luther dan Zwingli, kemudian antara Martin Luther dan John Calvin-akibatnya yang dihasilkan dalam pembentukan saingan berbeda dan Protestan denominasi seperti Lutheran, Reformed, Anabaptis, dan lain.
[ edit ] History [Sunting] Sejarah
Main article: History of Protestantism Artikel utama: Sejarah Protestanisme
Wiki surat w.svg This section requires expansion . Bagian ini membutuhkan ekspansi.
[ edit ] Fundamental principles [Sunting] Prinsip-prinsip Dasar

The three fundamental principles of traditional Protestantism are the following: Tiga prinsip-prinsip dasar Protestantisme tradisional adalah sebagai berikut:

* Authority of Scripture Otoritas Alkitab

The belief in the Bible as the primary source of faith . Kepercayaan dalam Alkitab sebagai sumber utama iman. The early churches of the Reformation believed in a critical, yet serious, reading of Scripture and holding the Bible as a source of authority higher than that of Church Tradition . Awal gereja-gereja Reformasi percaya pada kritis, namun serius, membaca Kitab Suci dan memegang Alkitab sebagai sumber otoritas lebih tinggi dari Tradisi Gereja. The many abuses that had occurred in the Western Church prior to the Protestant Reformation led the Reformers to reject much of the Tradition of the Western Church, though some would maintain Tradition has been maintained and reorganized in the liturgy and in the confessions of the Protestant Churches of the Reformation. Banyak penyalahgunaan yang terjadi di Gereja Barat sebelum memimpin Reformasi Protestan Reformis untuk menolak sebagian besar Tradisi Gereja Barat, meskipun beberapa akan mempertahankan tradisi telah dipelihara dan direorganisasi dalam liturgi dan dalam pengakuan Gereja-gereja Protestan Reformasi. In the early 20th century there developed a less critical reading of the Bible in the United States that has led to a "fundamentalist" reading of Scripture. Pada awal abad ke-20 yang dikembangkan ada yang kurang kritis pembacaan Alkitab di Amerika Serikat yang telah menyebabkan "fundamentalis" membaca Kitab Suci. Christian Fundamentalists read the Bible as the "inerrant, infallible" Word of God, much like fundamentalist Muslims would read the Qu'ran. Fundamentalis Kristen membaca Alkitab sebagai "tanpa salah, sempurna" Firman Allah, sama seperti fundamentalis muslim akan membaca Quran.

* Justification by Faith Alone Pembenaran oleh Faith Alone

The subjective principle of the Reformation is justification by faith alone , or, rather, by free grace through faith operative in good works. Prinsip subjektif Reformasi adalah pembenaran oleh iman saja, atau, lebih tepatnya, oleh kasih karunia melalui iman yang beroperasi dalam pekerjaan baik. It has reference to the personal appropriation of the Christian salvation, and aims to give all glory to Christ, by declaring that the sinner is justified before God (ie, is acquitted of guilt, and declared righteous) solely on the ground of the all-sufficient merits of Christ as apprehended by a living faith, in opposition to the theory—then prevalent, and substantially sanctioned by "the Council of Trent—which makes faith and good works co-ordinate sources of justification, laying the chief stress upon works. Protestantism does not depreciate good works; but it denies their value as sources or conditions of justification, and insists on them as the necessary fruits of faith, and evidence of justification." [ 5 ] Hal ini mengacu pada perampasan pribadi keselamatan Kristen, dan bertujuan untuk memberikan semua kemuliaan kepada Kristus, dengan menyatakan bahwa orang berdosa dibenarkan di hadapan Allah (yaitu, adalah dibebaskan dari rasa bersalah, dan dinyatakan benar) semata-mata atas dasar semua - cukup kebaikan Kristus sebagai dipahami oleh iman yang hidup, yang bertentangan dengan teori-lalu merata, dan secara substansial disetujui oleh "Konsili Trente-yang membuat iman dan perbuatan baik koordinasi sumber pembenaran, meletakkan kepala pada karya stres. Protestantisme tidak terdepresiasi perbuatan baik, tetapi ia menolak nilai mereka sebagai sumber atau ketentuan tentang pembenaran, dan menegaskan mereka sebagai buah yang diperlukan iman, dan bukti pembenaran. "[5]

* Universal Priesthood of Believers Imamat universal Mukminin

The universal priesthood of believers implies the right and duty of the Christian laity not only to read the Bible in the vernacular , but also to take part in the government and all the public affairs of the Church. Universal imamat orang-orang percaya mengimplikasikan hak dan kewajiban dari kaum awam Kristen bukan hanya untuk membaca Alkitab dalam bahasa sehari-hari, tetapi juga untuk mengambil bagian dalam pemerintahan dan semua urusan publik Gereja. It is opposed to the hierarchical system which puts the essence and authority of the Church in an exclusive priesthood, and makes ordained priests the necessary mediators between God and the people. [ 5 ] Hal ini bertentangan dengan sistem hirarkis yang menempatkan esensi dan otoritas Gereja di eksklusif keimamatan, dan membuat ditahbiskan sebagai imam yang diperlukan mediator antara Allah dan orang-orang. [5]

[ edit ] Major groupings [Sunting] Mayor pengelompokan

The term Protestant is often used loosely to denote all non-Roman Catholic varieties of Western Christianity, rather than to refer to those churches adhering to the principles described below. Protestan istilah ini sering digunakan secara longgar untuk menunjukkan semua non-Katolik Roma varietas Kristen Barat, bukan untuk merujuk kepada gereja-gereja yang mematuhi prinsip-prinsip yang diuraikan di bawah ini. Trinitarian Protestant denominations are divided according to the position taken on Baptism : Trinitarian denominasi Protestan dibagi sesuai dengan posisi yang diambil pada Pembaptisan:

* " Mainline Protestants ," a North American phrase, are Christians who trace their tradition's lineage to Lutheranism , Calvinism or Anglicanism . "Protestan arus utama," frase Amerika Utara, adalah Kristen yang menelusuri garis keturunan tradisi mereka untuk Lutheranisme, Calvinisme atau Anglikan. These groups are often considered to be part of the Magisterial Reformation and traditionally have adhered to the central doctrines and principles of the Reformation . Lutheranism , Calvinism , and a Zwinglian theology are typically mainline, and as denominations, "mainline" is typically seen as referring to Methodists , Presbyterians , Anglican/Episcopalian , and Lutherans, all large denominations with significant liberal and conservative wings. Kelompok-kelompok ini sering dianggap sebagai bagian dari Reformasi magisterial dan secara tradisional telah berpegang pada pusat doktrin-doktrin dan prinsip-prinsip Reformasi. Lutheranisme, Calvinisme, dan Zwingli biasanya arus utama teologi, dan sebagai denominasi, "arus utama" biasanya dilihat sebagai pengarah untuk Methodis, Presbiterian, Anglikan / Episkopal, dan Lutheran, semua denominasi besar dengan signifikan sayap liberal dan konservatif.
* Anabaptists were so named from the fact that they re-baptised converts. Anabaptis begitu bernama dari kenyataan bahwa mereka yang bertobat dibaptis ulang. According to the Edinburg Cyclopedia this name dates as far back as Tertullian , who was born just fifty years after the Apostle John; by about 1600 they were referred to simply as Baptists. Menurut ensiklopedi Edinburg nama ini tanggal sejauh Tertullian, yang lahir hanya lima puluh tahun setelah Rasul Yohanes; oleh sekitar 1600 mereka hanya disebut sebagai Baptis. Many Baptists do not claim to be Protestant, as this claims a heritage from the Protestant Reformation which came through the Roman Catholic Church, of which the Anabaptists were never a part. Banyak Baptis tidak mengaku sebagai Protestan, sebagai klaim ini warisan dari Reformasi Protestan yang datang melalui Gereja Katolik Roma, di mana Anabaptis tidak pernah menjadi bagian. Today, denominations such as the Brethren , Mennonites , Hutterites , and Amish eschew infant baptism and have historically been Peace churches . Hari ini, kelompok-kelompok keagamaan seperti Ikhwan, Mennonit, Hutterit, dan Amish menghindari baptisan bayi dan historis gereja Damai. Typically, independent Pentecostal and Charismatic denominations, and the house church movement belong in this category too. Biasanya, independen Pantekosta dan Karismatik denominasi, dan gerakan gereja rumah termasuk dalam kategori ini juga.
* Certain Protestant denominations including Baptists, the Quakers and the Shakers , do not practise Baptism sacramentally. [ 6 ] These denominations view baptism as part of a process on ongoing renewal. Denominasi Protestan tertentu termasuk Baptis, para Quakers dan Shakers, tidak mempraktekkan Baptis sakramental. [6] denominasi ini melihat baptisan sebagai bagian dari proses pembaruan yang berkelanjutan. Antecedents of these beliefs may be found in Strigolniki theology . Pendahulunya dari keyakinan ini dapat ditemukan dalam Strigolniki teologi. Normatively, the Salvation Army does not practise Baptism. Secara normatif, Bala Keselamatan tidak mempraktekkan Baptis.

There are many independent, non-aligned or non-denominational Trinitarian congregations that may take any one of these or no particular position on Baptism. Ada banyak independen, non-blok atau non-denominasi jemaat Trinitarian yang mungkin mengambil salah satu dari ini atau tidak ada posisi tertentu pada Pembaptisan.
[ edit ] Other groups rejecting Protestant label [Sunting] Kelompok-kelompok lain menolak label Protestan

Some religious movements, such as the Latter Day Saint movement , Nontrinitarian movements and the New Religious Movements which share certain characteristics of Protestant churches, are sometimes termed 'Protestant' by some outsiders even though neither mainstream Protestants, nor the groups themselves, would consider the designation appropriate. Beberapa gerakan-gerakan keagamaan, seperti gerakan Latter Day Saint, Nontrinitarian gerakan dan Gerakan Agama Baru yang memiliki karakteristik tertentu dari gereja-gereja Protestan, kadang-kadang disebut "Protestan" oleh beberapa pihak luar arus utama meskipun tidak Protestan, maupun kelompok-kelompok sendiri, akan mempertimbangkan penunjukan sesuai. Some groups associated with the Restoration Movement also consider themselves to be not Protestant. Beberapa kelompok yang terkait dengan Gerakan Restorasi juga menganggap diri mereka tidak Protestan.
[ edit ] Denominations [Sunting] Denominasi
Main article: Protestants by country Artikel utama: Protestan menurut negara
Anti- papal painting showing the enmity between Edward VI of England and the Pope. Anti-Paus lukisan yang menunjukkan permusuhan antara Edward VI dari Inggris dan Paus.

Protestants refer to specific Protestant groupings of churches that share in common foundational doctrines and the name of their groups as "denominations" . Protestan merujuk kepada kelompok tertentu gereja Protestan yang berbagi kesamaan doktrin-doktrin dasar dan nama kelompok mereka sebagai "denominasi". They are differently named parts of the whole "church"; Protestants reject the Roman Catholic doctrine that it is the one true church. Mereka berbeda bernama bagian dari seluruh "gereja"; Protestan menolak doktrin Katolik Roma bahwa itu adalah salah satu gereja yang benar. Some Protestant denominations are less accepting of other denominations, and the basic orthodoxy of some is questioned by most of the others. Beberapa denominasi Protestan kurang menerima denominasi lain, dan ortodoksi dasar dari beberapa yang dipertanyakan oleh sebagian besar orang lain. Individual denominations also have formed over very subtle theological differences. Masing-masing juga telah membentuk kelompok-kelompok keagamaan atas perbedaan-perbedaan teologis yang sangat halus. Other denominations are simply regional or ethnic expressions of the same beliefs. Denominasi lain hanyalah daerah atau etnis ekspresi keyakinan yang sama. Because the five solas are the main tenets of the Protestant faith, Non-denominational groups and organizations are also considered Protestant. Karena lima SOLAS adalah prinsip utama dari iman Protestan, kelompok keagamaan non-kelompok dan organisasi juga dianggap Protestan.

Various ecumenical movements have attempted cooperation or reorganization of the various divided Protestant denominations, according to various models of union, but divisions continue to outpace unions, as there is no overarching authority to which any of the sects owe allegiance, which can authoritatively define the faith. Berbagai gerakan ekumenis telah berusaha kerjasama atau reorganisasi dari berbagai denominasi Protestan dibagi, menurut berbagai model serikat pekerja, namun terus melebihi divisi serikat pekerja, karena tidak ada otoritas yang menyeluruh yang salah satu sekte berutang kesetiaan, yang dapat otoritatif menetapkan iman . Most denominations share common beliefs in the major aspects of the Christian faith, while differing in many secondary doctrines, although what is major and what is secondary is a matter of idiosyncratic belief. Kebanyakan denominasi berbagi kepercayaan umum dalam aspek-aspek utama dari iman Kristen, sementara yang berbeda dalam banyak doktrin-doktrin sekunder, meskipun apa yang utama dan apa yang sekunder adalah masalah kepercayaan istimewa. According to World Christian Encyclopedia, there are "over 33,000 denominations in 238 countries," having increased in number from 8,196 in 1970. Menurut World Christian Encyclopedia, ada "lebih dari 33.000 denominasi di 238 negara," telah meningkat jumlahnya dari 8.196 pada tahun 1970. Every year there is a net increase of around 270 to 300 denominations. [ 7 ] Setiap tahun ada peningkatan bersih sekitar 270-300 denominasi. [7]

There are about 800 million Protestants worldwide, [ 8 ] among approximately 2.2 billion Christians. [ 9 ] [ 10 ] These include 170 million in North America, 160 million in Africa, 120 million in Europe, 70 million in Latin America, 60 million in Asia, and 10 million in Oceania. Ada sekitar 800 juta Protestan di seluruh dunia, [8] di antara sekitar 2,2 milyar orang Kristen. [9] [10] Ini termasuk 170 juta di Amerika Utara, 160 juta di Afrika, 120 juta di Eropa, 70 juta di Amerika Latin, 60 juta pada Asia, dan 10 juta di Oseania.

Protestants can be differentiated according to how they have been influenced by important movements since the magisterial Reformation and the Puritan Reformation in England. Protestan dapat dibedakan menurut bagaimana mereka telah dipengaruhi oleh gerakan-gerakan penting sejak magisterial Reformasi dan Reformasi Puritan di Inggris. Some of these movements have a common lineage, sometimes directly spawning later movements in the same groups. Beberapa gerakan-gerakan ini memiliki kesamaan keturunan, kadang-kadang langsung pemijahan kemudian gerakan-gerakan dalam kelompok yang sama. Only general families are listed here (due to the above-stated multitude of denominations ); some of these groups do not consider themselves as part of the Protestant movement, but are generally viewed as such by the public at large [ citation needed ] : Hanya keluarga umum tercantum di sini (karena yang disebutkan di atas banyak denominasi); beberapa kelompok-kelompok ini tidak menganggap diri mereka sebagai bagian dari gerakan Protestan, tetapi umumnya dianggap demikian oleh masyarakat luas [rujukan?]:
[ edit ] Anglicans [Sunting] Anglikan

The separation of the Church of England and Church of Ireland from Rome under King Henry VIII did not take a Protestant form. Pemisahan dari Gereja Inggris dan Gereja Irlandia dari Roma di bawah Raja Henry VIII tidak mengambil formulir Protestan. However by the efforts of Thomas Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury and Thomas Cromwell , both with Lutheran sympathies [ 11 ] , the Churches assumed a Protestant character, and under King Edward VI the Churches became openly Protestant, adopting Calvinist doctrines in the Forty-Two Articles , restored under Queen Elizabeth I . Thereafter the defence of Protestantism in Britain and Ireland became a major political issue, culminating in the deposition of King James II & VII and the settlement of the Crown in the line of Princess Sophia and " the heirs of her body being Protestant ". Namun dengan upaya Thomas Cranmer Uskup Agung Canterbury dan Thomas Cromwell, baik dengan Lutheran simpati [11], Gereja Protestan mengasumsikan karakter, dan di bawah Raja Edward VI Gereja-gereja Protestan menjadi terbuka, mengadopsi doktrin-doktrin Calvinis di Empat Puluh Dua Artikel, dipulihkan di bawah Ratu Elizabeth I. Selanjutnya pertahanan Protestantisme di Britania dan Irlandia menjadi isu politik utama, yang berpuncak pada pengendapan Raja James II & VII dan penyelesaian dari Crown di garis Putri Sophia dan "para ahli waris dari tubuhnya menjadi Protestan ".

In the nineteenth century some of the Tractarians proposed that the Church of England and the other Anglican churches are not Protestant, but a middle path between Rome and Protestantism [ citation needed ] . Pada abad kesembilan belas beberapa Tractarians mengusulkan agar Gereja Inggris dan yang lain gereja-gereja Anglikan tidak Protestan, tetapi sebuah jalan tengah antara Roma dan Protestan [rujukan?]. This assertion was attacked by, amongst others, the Church Association . [ 12 ] Penegasan ini diserang oleh, antara lain, Asosiasi Gereja. [12]

Today, many Anglicans do not consider themselves Protestant. [ citation needed ] Hari ini, banyak Anglikan tidak menganggap diri mereka Protestan. [Rujukan?]
[ edit ] Main denominations [Sunting] denominasi Utama
Christian Denominations Denominasi Kristen
in English-speaking countries di negara-negara berbahasa Inggris
[show] Australia Australia
Australian Christian bodies v • d • e Australia tubuh Kristen l • d • e
Australian Interchurch Australia Interchurch [show]

Australian Evangelical Alliance • site Aliansi Injili Australia • situs
National Council of Churches National Council of Churches
Catholic & Anglican Katolik & Anglikan [show]

Anglican Church of Australia Gereja Anglikan Australia
Roman Catholic Church Gereja Katolik Roma
Holiness & Pietist Kekudusan & pietis [show]

Christian and Missionary Alliance Christian and Missionary Alliance
Christian Outreach Centre Pusat Penjangkauan Kristen
Church of the Nazarene Gereja Nazarene
Salvation Army Bala Keselamatan
Seventh-day Adventist Church Advent Hari Ketujuh-Gereja
Historical Protestantism Sejarah Protestanisme [show]

Australian Friends Australia Teman
Baptist Union of Australia Baptist Union of Australia
Brethren Ikhwan
Christian Reformed Churches of Australia Gereja-gereja Reformasi Kristen Australia
Churches of Christ Gereja-gereja Kristus
Fellowship of Congregational Churches Persekutuan Gereja-gereja Kongregasional
Lutheran Church of Australia Gereja Lutheran Australia
Presbyterian Church of Australia Gereja Presbiterian Australia
Uniting Church in Australia Gereja Bersatu di Australia
Wesleyan Methodist Church of Australia Gereja Methodis Wesleyan Australia
Orthodox Ortodoks [show]

Antiochian Orthodox of Australia & New Z. Antiokhia Ortodoks di Australia & New Z.
Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of Australia Keuskupan Agung Ortodoks Yunani australia
Serbian Orthodox of Australia & New Z. Ortodoks Serbia di Australia & New Z.

Non-Chalcedonic Non-Chalcedonic

Coptic Orthodox Church in Australia Gereja Ortodoks Koptik di Australia
Pentecostal & Related Pantekosta & Related [show]

Australian Christian Churches (AOG) Australia Gereja-gereja Kristen (AOG)
Christian City Church Intl. Gereja Kota Kristen Intl.
CRC Churches International CRC Gereja Internasional
Revival Centres International • site Revival Centre International • situs
Vineyard Churches Australia Gereja-gereja Vineyard Australia
Worldwide Church of God Worldwide Church of God
[show] Canada Kanada
Canadian Christian bodies v • d • e Kanada tubuh Kristen l • d • e
Canadian Interchurch Kanada Interchurch [show]

Canadian Council of Churches Kanada Dewan Gereja-gereja
S. Conference of Orthodox Bishops in America S. Konferensi Uskup Ortodoks di Amerika
North Am. North Am. Presbyterian & Reformed Council Presbyterian & Reformed Dewan
Anabaptist & Friends Anabaptis & Friends [show]

Church of the Brethren Gereja Brethren
Canadian Mennonite Brethren Churches Gereja-gereja Mennonite Brethren Kanada
Canadian Yearly Meeting (Quakers) Rapat Tahunan Kanada (Quaker)
Mennonite Church Canada Gereja Mennonite Kanada
Baptist & Stone-Campbell Baptis & Stone-Campbell [show]

Baptist Baptis

Association of Regular Baptist Churches Asosiasi Gereja-gereja Baptis Regular
Baptist General Conference of Canada Konferensi Umum Baptis Kanada
Canadian Baptist Ministries Baptis Kanada Ministries
Canadian Convention of Southern Baptists Kanada Konvensi Baptis Selatan
Fellowship of Evgcl. Persekutuan Evgcl. Baptist Churches, Canada Gereja-gereja Baptis, Kanada
North American Baptist Conference Konferensi Baptis Amerika Utara

Stone-Campbell Restoration Movement Restorasi Stone-Campbell Gerakan

Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) Gereja Kristen (Murid-murid Kristus)
Evangelical Christian Church in Canada Gereja Kristen Injili di Kanada
Catholic & Anglican Katolik & Anglikan [show]

Anglican Church of Canada Gereja Anglikan Kanada
Anglican Church in North America Gereja Anglikan di Amerika Utara
Polish National Catholic Church Gereja Katolik Nasional Polandia
Roman Catholic Church Gereja Katolik Roma
Holiness & Pietist Kekudusan & pietis [show]

Christian and Missionary Alliance, Canada Christian and Missionary Alliance, Kanada
Church of the Nazarene Gereja Nazarene
Evangelical Free Church of Canada Gereja Bebas Injili Kanada
Salvation Army Bala Keselamatan
Seventh-day Adventists, North America Advent Hari Ketujuh, Amerika Utara
Wesleyan Church Gereja Wesleyan
Lutheran Lutheran [show]

Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada Gereja Lutheran Injili di Kanada
Lutheran Church–Canada Gereja Lutheran-Kanada
Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod Sinode Lutheran Injili Wisconsin
Methodist Methodis [show]

British Methodist Episcopal Church Gereja Episkopal Methodis Inggris
Free Methodist Church in Canada Gereja Methodis gratis di Kanada
United Church of Canada United Church of Canada
Orthodox Ortodoks [show]

Antiochian Orthodox Archdiocese, N.Am. Keuskupan Agung Ortodoks Antiokhia, N.Am.
Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America Keuskupan Agung Ortodoks Yunani Amerika
Orthodox Church in America Gereja Ortodoks di Amerika
Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia Luar Gereja Ortodoks Rusia Rusia
Ukrainian Orthodox Church of Canada Gereja Ortodoks Ukraina di Kanada

Non-Chalcedonic Non-Chalcedonic

Armenian Apostolic Diocese of Am. Keuskupan Apostolik Armenia Am.
Coptic Orthodox Church in Canada Gereja Ortodoks Koptik di Kanada
Pentecostal Pantekosta [show]

Canadian Assemblies of God Kanada Sidang Jemaat Allah
Church of God of Prophecy Gereja Allah Nubuatan
Intl. Intl. Foursquare Gospel, Canada Kokoh Injil, Kanada
Intl. Intl. Pentecostal Holiness Church Kekudusan Gereja Pantekosta
Pentecostal Assemblies of Canada Sidang Pentakostal Kanada
Pentecostal Church of God Gereja Allah Pentakostal

Oneness Pentecostal Keesaan Pentakostal

United Pentecostal Church Intl. United Pentecostal Church Intl.
Presbyterian & Reformed Presbyterian & Reformed [show]

Canadian and American Reformed Churches Kanada dan Amerika Gereja-gereja Reformasi
Christian Reformed Church in North America Gereja Reformasi Kristen di Amerika Utara
L'Église réformée du Québec L'Église réformée du Québec
Presbyterian Church in Canada Gereja Presbiterian di Kanada
Presbyterian Church in America Gereja Presbyterian di Amerika
Reformed Church in America Gereja Reformasi di Amerika
United Church of Canada United Church of Canada
Other Lain [show]

Messianic Jewish Alliance of America Mesianik Yahudi Amerika Aliansi
Plymouth Brethren Plymouth Brethren
Vineyard Canada Vineyard Kanada
[show] United Kingdom Kerajaan Inggris
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Affinity (formerly British Evangelical Council) • site Afinitas (sebelumnya Injili British Council) • situs
Churches Together in Britain & Ireland • site Gereja-gereja Bersama di Britain & Irlandia • situs
Evangelical Alliance , UK • site locate Evangelical Alliance, UK • situs mencari
Fellowship of Independent Evangelical Churches • site Persekutuan Gereja-gereja Injili Independen • situs
Churches Together in England • site Gereja-gereja Bersama di Inggris • situs
Action of Churches Together, Scotland (ACTS) • site Aksi Gereja-gereja Bersama, Skotlandia (ACTS) • situs
Associating Evangelical Churches of Wales • site Gereja-gereja Injili bergaul Wales • situs
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Evangelical Movement of Wales • site Gerakan Injili Wales • situs
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Church of England • site Gereja Inggris • situs
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Association of Baptist Churches in Ireland • site Asosiasi Gereja-gereja Baptis di Irlandia • situs
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British Old Catholic Church • site Gereja Katolik Lama Inggris • situs
Old Catholic Church in Europe • site Gereja Katolik Lama di Eropa • situs
Old Catholic Mariavite Church • site Mariavite Gereja Katolik Lama • situs
Old Catholic Church of Great Britain • site Gereja Katolik Lama Britania Raya • situs
Traditional Catholic Orthodox Church • site Gereja Ortodoks Katolik tradisional • situs
United Ecumenical Catholic Church • site Amerika Ekumenis Gereja Katolik • situs
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Christian Outreach Centre • site Christian Outreach Centre • situs
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Vineyard Churches UK • site Gereja-gereja Vineyard UK • situs
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British Orthodox Church • site Gereja Ortodoks Inggris • situs
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Evangelical Presbyterian Church • site Gereja Presbyterian Injili • situs
Free Church of Scotland • site Bebas Gereja Skotlandia • situs
Free Church of Scotland (Continuing) • site Free Church of Scotland (Lanjutan) • situs
Free Presbyterian Church of Scotland • site Gereja Presbyterian Bebas Skotlandia • situs
Free Presbyterian Church of Ulster • site Gereja Presbyterian Bebas Ulster • situs
Non-subscribing Presbyterian, Ireland • site Non-berlangganan Presbyterian, Irlandia • situs
Presbyterian Church in Ireland • site Gereja Presbyterian di Irlandia • situs
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Reformed Presbyterian Church • N.Ire , Scot Gereja Presbyterian Reformasi • N. Ire, Scot
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[show] United States Amerika Serikat
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Church of the Nazarene Gereja Nazarene
Salvation Army Bala Keselamatan
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Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese Keuskupan Agung Kristen Ortodoks Antiokhia
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Non-Chalcedonic Non-Chalcedonic

Armenian Apostolic of Am. Armenia Apostolik dari Am.
Armenian Apostolic Diocese of Am. Keuskupan Apostolik Armenia Am.
Coptic Orthodox Church Gereja Ortodoks Koptik
Pentecostal Pantekosta [show]

Assemblies of God Sidang Jemaat Allah
Church of God (Cleveland, TN) Gereja Allah (Cleveland, TN)
Church of God in Christ Gereja Allah di dalam Kristus
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Full Gospel Fellowship Full Gospel Fellowship
Intl. Intl. Church of the Foursquare Gospel Gereja Injil kokoh
Intl. Intl. Pentecostal Holiness Church Kekudusan Gereja Pantekosta
Pentecostal Church of God Gereja Allah Pentakostal

Oneness Pentecostal Keesaan Pentakostal

Pentecostal Assemblies of the World Sidang Pentakostal Dunia
United Pentecostal Church Intl. United Pentecostal Church Intl.
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Conservative Congregational Christian Conference Jemaat Kristen konservatif Konferensi
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Korean Presbyterian Church in America Gereja Presbyterian Korea di Amerika
International Council of Community Churches Dewan Internasional Gereja-gereja Komunitas
National Asso. Asso nasional. of Congregational Christian Churches dari Jemaat Gereja-gereja Kristen
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United Church of Christ United Church of Christ
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Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Gereja Yesus Kristus dari Orang-orang Suci Zaman Akhir
Community of Christ Komunitas Kristus
Grace Gospel Fellowship Grace Gospel Fellowship
Independent Fundamental Churches of America Gereja-gereja Independen Amerika Fundamental
Messianic Jewish Alliance of America Mesianik Yahudi Amerika Aliansi
Plymouth Brethren Plymouth Brethren
Vineyard USA Vineyard USA
See also: Non-denominational Christianity Lihat juga: Non-denominasi Kristen
[show] International Associations Asosiasi Internasional

Interdenominational Associations Interdenominational Asosiasi

World Council of Churches Dewan Gereja Dunia
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Denominational Associations Denominasi Asosiasi

Friends World Committee for Consultation Teman-teman Komite Dunia Konsultasi
Mennonite World Conference Konferensi Dunia Mennonit
Anglican Communion Anglikan
Baptist World Alliance Baptist World Alliance
World Convention of Churches of Christ Konvensi dunia Gereja-gereja Kristus
Eastern Orthodox Church Gereja Ortodoks Timur
Confessional Evangelical Lutheran Conference Pengakuan Gereja Lutheran Konferensi
International Lutheran Council Dewan Lutheran Internasional
Lutheran World Federation Lutheran World Federation
World Methodist Council Dewan Methodis Dunia
Pentecostal World Conference Pentecostal World Conference
International Conference of Reformed Churches Konferensi Internasional Gereja-gereja Reformasi
Reformed Ecumenical Council Reformasi Konsili
World Communion of Reformed Churches Dunia Persekutuan Gereja-gereja Reformasi
World Reformed Fellowship World Reformed Fellowship

Regional Associations Asosiasi Daerah
Africa Africa [show]

All Africa Conference of Churches (AACC) Semua Afrika Konferensi Gereja-gereja (AACC)
Association of Evangelicals of Africa (AEA) Asosiasi Evangelicals Afrika (AEA)
All Africa Baptist Fellowship Semua Afrika Baptist Fellowship
Africa Lutheran Communion Lutheran africa Komuni
Asia Asia [show]

Christian Conference of Asia (CCA) Konferensi Kristen Asia (CCA)
Evangelical Fellowship of Asia Evangelical Fellowship of Asia
Asia Pacific Baptist Federation Federasi Baptis Asia Pasifik
Asia Lutheran Communion Asia Lutheran Komuni
Caribbean Karibia [show]

Caribbean Conference of Churches (CCC) Karibia Konferensi Gereja-Gereja (CCC)
Evangelical Association of the Caribbean Asosiasi Injili Karibia
Caribbean Baptist Fellowship Baptis Karibia Fellowship
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Conference of European Churches (CEC) Konferensi Gereja-gereja Eropa (CEC)
European Evangelical Alliance Aliansi Injili european
European Baptist Federation Federasi Baptis european
Pentecostal European Fellowship Eropa Pentecostal Fellowship
Middle East Timur Tengah [show]

Middle East Council of Churches (MECC) Timur Tengah Dewan Gereja-gereja (MECC)
Latin America Amerika Latin [show]

Latin American Council of Churches (CLAI) Amerika Latin Dewan Gereja-gereja (CLAI)
Latin American Evangelical Fellowship (FIDE) Injili Amerika Latin Fellowship (FIDE)
Union of Baptists in Latin America Persatuan Baptis di Amerika Latin
North America Amerika Utara [show]

[[North American Baptist Fellowship] [[Baptis Amerika Utara Fellowship]
Standing Conference of Orthodox Bishops in America Berdiri Konferensi Uskup Ortodoks di Amerika
North American Presbyterian and Reformed Council Amerika Utara Presbiterian dan Reformasi Dewan
Pacific Pacific [show]

Pacific Conference of Churches (PCC) Pacific Konferensi Gereja-Gereja (PCC)
Evangelical Fellowship of the South Pacific (EFSP) Persekutuan Injili Pasifik Selatan (EFSP)
Asia Pacific Baptist Federation Federasi Baptis Asia Pasifik
This box: view • talk • edit Kotak info ini: lihat • bicara • sunting

* Adventists Advent
* Anabaptist Anabaptis
* Anglicanism [ 13 ] Anglikanisme [13]
* Baptist Baptis
* Calvinist Calvinis
* Charismatic Karismatik
* Congregational Kongregasional
* Lutheran Lutheran
* Methodist / Wesleyan Methodis / Wesleyan
* Nazarene Nazarene
* Pentecostal Pantekosta
* Plymouth Brethren Plymouth Brethren
* Presbyterian Presbiterian
* Religious Society of Friends (Quaker) Religious Society of Friends (Quaker)
* Reformed Reformasi
* Restoration movement Gerakan Restorasi
* Seventh-day Adventist Advent Hari Ketujuh
* Waldensians Waldensia

[ edit ] Theological tenets of the reformation [Sunting] Teologi ajaran reformasi
Main article: Five solas Artikel utama: Lima SOLAS

The Five Solas are five Latin phrases (or slogans) that emerged during the Protestant Reformation and summarize the Reformers' basic differences in theological beliefs in opposition to the teaching of the Catholic Church of the day. Lima SOLAS adalah lima Latin frase (atau slogan-slogan) yang muncul selama Reformasi Protestan dan meringkas para Reformis 'perbedaan mendasar dalam keyakinan teologis bertentangan dengan ajaran Gereja Katolik hari. The Latin word sola means "alone", "only", or "single". Sola kata Latin berarti "sendirian", "hanya", atau "tunggal".

The use of the phrases as summaries of teaching emerged over time during the reformation, based on the over-arching principle of sola scriptura (by scripture alone). Penggunaan ungkapan-ungkapan sebagai ringkasan dari pengajaran muncul dari waktu ke waktu selama reformasi, berdasarkan atas prinsip-melengkungkan sola scriptura (oleh Kitab Suci sendiri). This idea contains the four main doctrines on the Bible: that its teaching is needed for salvation (necessity); that all the doctrine necessary for salvation comes from the Bible alone (sufficiency); that everything taught in the Bible is correct (inerrancy); and that, by the Holy Spirit overcoming sin, believers may read and understand truth from the Bible itself, though understanding is difficult, so the means used to guide individual believers to the true teaching is often mutual discussion within the church (clarity). Ide ini berisi empat doktrin utama di Alkitab: bahwa pengajaran yang dibutuhkan untuk keselamatan (keharusan); bahwa semua doktrin yang diperlukan untuk keselamatan datang dari Alkitab saja (kecukupan); bahwa segala sesuatu yang diajarkan di Alkitab adalah benar (ketidakmungkinsalahan); dan bahwa, oleh Roh Kudus mengatasi dosa, orang percaya dapat membaca dan mengerti kebenaran dari Alkitab itu sendiri, meskipun sulit memahami, sehingga cara yang digunakan untuk memandu setiap orang percaya kepada ajaran yang benar sering saling diskusi di dalam gereja (kejelasan). The necessity and inerrancy were well-established ideas, garnering little criticism, though they later came under debate from outside during the Enlightenment. Kebutuhan dan ketidakmungkinsalahan sudah mapan ide, mengumpulkan sedikit kritik, meskipun mereka kemudian datang diperdebatkan dari luar selama Pencerahan. The most contentious idea at the time though was the notion that anyone could simply pick up the Bible and learn enough to gain salvation. Ide yang paling diperdebatkan pada waktu walaupun dilandasi pemikiran bahwa setiap orang bisa saja mengambil Alkitab dan belajar cukup untuk memperoleh keselamatan. Though the reformers were concerned with ecclesiology (the doctrine of how the church as a body works), they had a different understanding of the process in which truths in scripture were applied to life of believers, compared to the Catholics' idea that certain people within the church, or ideas that were old enough, had a special status in giving understanding of the text. Meskipun para reformator yang bersangkutan dengan eklesiologi (ajaran tentang bagaimana gereja sebagai tubuh bekerja), mereka memiliki pemahaman yang berbeda dari proses di mana kebenaran dalam Kitab Suci diaplikasikan untuk kehidupan orang percaya, dibandingkan dengan Katolik 'gagasan bahwa orang-orang tertentu di dalam gereja, atau ide yang sudah cukup tua, memiliki status khusus dalam memberikan pemahaman teks.

The second main principle, sola fide (by faith alone), states that faith in Christ is sufficient alone for eternal salvation. Prinsip utama kedua, sola fide (hanya oleh iman), menyatakan bahwa iman di dalam Kristus sudah cukup sendirian untuk keselamatan kekal. Though argued from scripture, and hence logically consequent to sola scriptura , this is the guiding principle of the work of Luther and the later reformers. Meskipun berpendapat dari Kitab Suci, dan karenanya secara logis konsekuen untuk sola scriptura, ini adalah prinsip kerja dari Luther dan kemudian reformis. As sola scriptura placed the bible as the only source of teaching, sola fide epitomises the main thrust of the teaching the reformers wanted to get back to, namely the direct, close, personal connection between Christ and the believer, hence the reformers' contention that their work was Christocentric. Sola scriptura ditempatkan sebagai Alkitab sebagai satu-satunya sumber pengajaran, sola fide melambangkan kekuatan utama dari ajaran para reformator ingin kembali ke, yaitu langsung, dekat, hubungan pribadi antara Kristus dan orang percaya, maka para reformator berpendapat bahwa Christocentric pekerjaan mereka.

The other solas, as statements, emerged later, but the thinking they represent was also part of the early reformation. SOLAS lainnya, sebagai pernyataan, muncul kemudian, tetapi pemikiran yang mereka wakili juga bagian dari reformasi awal.

* Solus Christus : Christ alone . Solus Christus: Kristus sendiri.

The Protestants characterize the dogma concerning the Pope as Christ's representative head of the Church on earth, the concept of works made meritorious by Christ, and the Catholic idea of a treasury of the merits of Christ and his saints, as a denial that Christ is the only mediator between God and man. Ciri orang Protestan dogma mengenai Paus sebagai wakil Kristus Kepala Gereja di bumi, konsep berjasa karya yang dibuat oleh Kristus, dan gagasan Katolik dari perbendaharaan kebaikan Kristus dan para orang kudus, sebagai penyangkalan bahwa Kristus adalah satu-satunya pengantara antara Allah dan manusia. Catholics, on the other hand, maintained the traditional understanding of Judaism on these questions, and appealed to the universal consensus of Christian tradition. [ 14 ] Katolik, di sisi lain, mempertahankan pemahaman tradisional Yudaisme pada pertanyaan-pertanyaan ini, dan menarik konsensus universal tradisi Kristen. [14]

* Sola Gratia : Grace Alone . Sola Gratia: Grace Alone.

Protestants perceived Roman Catholic salvation to be dependent upon the grace of God and the merits of one's own works. Protestan Katolik Roma dianggap keselamatan harus tergantung pada kasih karunia Allah dan manfaat dari karya sendiri. The Reformers posited that salvation is a gift of God (ie, God's act of free grace), dispensed by the Holy Spirit owing to the redemptive work of Jesus Christ alone. Para Reformator mengemukakan bahwa keselamatan adalah karunia Allah (yaitu, tindakan Allah kasih karunia), dibagikan oleh Roh Kudus karena karya penebusan Yesus Kristus. Consequently, they argued that a sinner is not accepted by God on account of the change wrought in the believer by God's grace, and that the believer is accepted without regard for the merit of his works—for no one deserves salvation. [ Matt. 7:21 ] Akibatnya, mereka berpendapat bahwa orang berdosa tidak diterima oleh Allah tentang perubahan tempa di percaya oleh anugerah Allah, dan bahwa orang percaya adalah diterima tanpa memperhatikan kebaikan-karyanya tidak ada yang pantas untuk keselamatan. [Matt. 7 : 21]

* Soli Deo Gloria : Glory to God Alone Soli Deo Gloria: Kemuliaan kepada Allah Alone

All glory is due to God alone, since salvation is accomplished solely through his will and action—not only the gift of the all-sufficient atonement of Jesus on the cross but also the gift of faith in that atonement, created in the heart of the believer by the Holy Spirit . Semua kemuliaan adalah karena Allah saja, karena keselamatan hanya dicapai melalui kehendak-Nya dan tindakan-bukan hanya karunia kecukupan pendamaian dari Yesus di salib, tetapi juga karunia iman dalam penebusan, dibuat di jantung percaya oleh Roh Kudus. The reformers believed that human beings—even saints canonized by the Catholic Church, the popes, and the ecclesiastical hierarchy—are not worthy of the glory Para reformator percaya bahwa manusia-bahkan orang-orang kudus dikanonisasi oleh Gereja Katolik, para paus, dan hierarki gerejawi-tidak layak kemuliaan

[ edit ] Christ's presence in the Lord's Supper [Sunting] kehadiran Kristus dalam Perjamuan Tuhan
Main articles: Real Presence and Eucharist Artikel utama: Real Kehadiran dan Ekaristi

The Protestant movement began to coalesce into several distinct branches in the mid-to-late sixteenth century. Gerakan Protestan mulai menyatu menjadi beberapa cabang yang berbeda pada pertengahan-ke-akhir abad keenam belas. One of the central points of divergence was controversy over the Lord's Supper. Salah satu titik sentral kontroversi perbedaan adalah Perjamuan Tuhan. Early Protestants rejected the Roman Catholic dogma of transubstantiation , which teaches that the bread and wine used in the sacrificial rite of the Mass lose their natural substance by being transformed into the Body, Blood, Soul, and Divinity of Christ. Protestan awal menolak Katolik Roma dogma dari transubstansiasi, yang mengajarkan bahwa roti dan anggur yang digunakan dalam upacara kurban Misa kehilangan bahan alami dengan menjadi berubah menjadi Tubuh, Darah, Jiwa, dan keilahian Kristus. They disagreed with one another concerning the presence of Christ and his body and blood in Holy Communion. Mereka tidak setuju dengan satu sama lain mengenai kehadiran Kristus dan tubuh dan darah dalam Perjamuan Kudus.

* Lutherans hold that within the Lord's Supper the consecrated elements of bread and wine are the true body and blood of Christ "in, with, and under the form" of bread and wine for all those who eat and drink it, [ 15 ] a doctrine that the Formula of Concord calls the Sacramental union . [ 16 ] God earnestly offers to all who receive the sacrament [ 17 ] forgiveness of sins [ 18 ] and eternal salvation. [ 19 ] Lutheran berpendapat bahwa dalam Perjamuan Tuhan unsur-unsur yang disucikan roti dan anggur adalah benar tubuh dan darah Kristus "dalam, dengan, dan di bawah bentuk" roti dan anggur untuk semua orang yang makan dan minum, [15] sebuah doktrin bahwa Concord Formula disebut Sakramen persatuan. [16] Allah dengan sungguh-sungguh menawarkan kepada semua orang yang menerima sakramen [17] pengampunan dosa [18] dan keselamatan kekal. [19]
* The Reformed closest to Calvin emphasize the real presence , or sacramental presence , of Christ, saying that the sacrament is a means of saving grace through which only the elect believer actually partakes of Christ, but merely WITH the Bread & Wine rather than in the Elements. Reformasi yang paling dekat dengan Calvin menekankan kehadiran nyata, atau kehadiran sakramental, Kristus, mengatakan bahwa sakramen adalah sarana anugrah keselamatan melalui umat pilihan yang hanya percaya sebenarnya merupakan bagian dari Kristus, melainkan hanya DENGAN Roti & Anggur bukan di Elemen . Calvinists deny the Lutheran assertion that all communicants, both believers and unbelievers, orally receive Christ's body and blood in the elements of the sacrament , but instead affirm that Christ is united to the believer through faith—toward which the supper is an outward and visible aid, this is often referred to as dynamic presence . Calvinis Lutheran menyangkal pernyataan bahwa semua komuni, baik orang yang beriman dan orang-orang kafir, secara lisan menerima tubuh Kristus dan darah dalam unsur-unsur sakramen, melainkan menegaskan bahwa Kristus adalah bersatu untuk orang percaya melalui iman-menuju makan malam yang merupakan bantuan luar dan terlihat , ini sering disebut sebagai kehadiran dinamis. Why this aid is necessary in addition to faith differs according to the believer. Mengapa diperlukan bantuan ini di samping iman berbeda menurut orang percaya. Some Protestants (such as the Salvation Army) do not believe it is necessary at all. Beberapa Protestan (seperti Bala Keselamatan) tidak percaya itu perlu sama sekali.
* A Protestant holding a popular simplification of the Zwinglian view, without concern for theological intricacies as hinted at above, may see the Lord's Supper merely as a symbol of the shared faith of the participants, a commemoration of the facts of the crucifixion, and a reminder of their standing together as the Body of Christ (a view referred to somewhat derisively as memorialism ). Seorang Protestan memegang penyederhanaan populer pandangan Zwingli, tanpa memperhatikan kerumitan teologis sebagaimana diisyaratkan di atas, dapat melihat Perjamuan Tuhan hanya sebagai simbol iman bersama para peserta, sebuah peringatan dari fakta-fakta penyaliban, dan pengingat mereka berdiri bersama-sama sebagai Tubuh Kristus (pandangan disebut agak mengejek sebagai memorialism).

[ edit ] Catholicism [Sunting] Katolik

The official Roman Catholic view on the matter is that Protestant communities cannot be considered "churches", but rather that they are mere ecclesial communities or "specific faith believing communities" because their sacraments, doctrines, lack of authentic apostolic succession do not follow Catholic Doctrine. [ 20 ] Resmi Katolik Roma tampilan pada masalah ini adalah bahwa masyarakat Protestan tidak dapat dianggap sebagai "gereja", tetapi bahwa mereka hanya komunitas gerejawi atau "iman tertentu masyarakat percaya" karena mereka sakramen, doktrin, kurangnya otentik suksesi apostolik tidak mengikuti Doktrin Katolik . [20]

Contrary to how the Protestant reformers were often characterized, the concept of a catholic or universal Church was not brushed aside during the Protestant Reformation. Berlawanan dengan bagaimana reformator Protestan sering ditandai, konsep Katolik atau Gereja universal tidak menepis selama Reformasi Protestan. On the contrary, the visible unity of the Catholic Church was an important and essential doctrine of the Reformation. Sebaliknya, yang terlihat kesatuan dari Gereja Katolik yang penting dan esensial doktrin Reformasi. The Magisterial Reformers, such as Martin Luther , John Calvin , and Ulrich Zwingli , believed that they were "reforming" the Catholic Church, which they viewed as having become corrupted. Magisterial Reformator, seperti Martin Luther, John Calvin, dan Ulrich Zwingli, percaya bahwa mereka adalah "mereformasi" Gereja Katolik, yang mereka pandang sebagai telah menjadi rusak. Each of them took very seriously the charges of schism and innovation, denying these charges and maintaining that it was the Catholic Church that had left them. [ 21 ] In order to justify their departure from the Catholic Church, Protestants often posited a new argument, saying that there was no real visible Church with divine authority, only a "spiritual", "invisible", and "hidden" church. Masing-masing dari mereka sangat serius tuduhan skisma dan inovasi, menyangkal tuduhan ini dan mempertahankan bahwa itu adalah Gereja Katolik yang telah meninggalkan mereka. [21] Dalam rangka untuk membenarkan keberangkatan mereka dari Gereja Katolik, Protestan kerap mengemukakan argumen baru, mengatakan bahwa tidak ada terlihat nyata Gereja dengan otoritas ilahi, hanya sebuah "spiritual", "tak terlihat", dan "tersembunyi" gereja.

Wherever the Magisterial Reformation, which received support from the ruling authorities, took place, the result was a reformed national Protestant church envisioned to be a part of the whole "invisible church", but disagreeing, in certain important points of doctrine and doctrine-linked practice, with what had until then been considered the normative reference point on such matters, namely the Papacy and central authority of the Catholic Church . Di mana pun magisterial Reformasi, yang menerima dukungan dari pemerintah yang berkuasa, terjadi, hasilnya adalah sebuah gereja Protestan Reformasi nasional membayangkan untuk menjadi bagian dari seluruh "gereja tak terlihat", tetapi tidak setuju, dalam beberapa poin penting dari doktrin dan doktrin-link praktek, dengan apa yang sampai saat itu dianggap sebagai titik acuan normatif pada hal-hal semacam itu, yaitu Kepausan dan otoritas pusat Gereja Katolik. The Reformed churches thus believed in some form of Catholicity, founded on their doctrines of the five solas and a visible ecclesiastical organization based on the 14th and 15th century Conciliar movement , rejecting the Papacy and Papal Infallibility in favor of Ecumenical councils , but rejecting the latest ecumenical council, the Council of Trent . Dengan demikian gereja-gereja Reformed percaya dalam beberapa bentuk agama Katolik, didasarkan pada doktrin-doktrin mereka dari lima SOLAS dan terlihat gerejawi organisasi berdasarkan ke-14 dan abad ke-15 gerakan Konsiliar, menolak Kepausan dan Paus Infallibility yang mendukung konsili ekumenis, tetapi menolak terbaru konsili ekumenis, yang Konsili Trent. Religious unity therefore became not one of doctrine and identity, but one of invisible character, wherein the unity was one of faith in Jesus Christ, not common identity, doctrine, belief, and collaborative action. Oleh karena itu persatuan agama tidak menjadi salah satu doktrin dan identitas, tapi salah satu karakter tidak terlihat, di mana kesatuan adalah salah satu iman dalam Yesus Kristus, bukan identitas umum, doktrin, keyakinan, dan tindakan kolaboratif.

Today there is a growing movement of Protestants, especially of the Reformed tradition, that reject the designation "Protestant" because of its negative "anti-catholic" connotations, preferring the designation "Reformed", "Evangelical" or even "Reformed Catholic" expressive of what they call a "Reformed Catholicity" [ 22 ] and defending their arguments from the traditional Protestant Confessions . [ 23 ] Hari ini ada gerakan yang berkembang Protestan, khususnya Reformed tradisi, yang menolak penunjukan "Protestan" karena negatif "anti-katolik" konotasi, lebih menyukai sebutan "Reformasi", "Injili" atau bahkan "Reformasi Katolik" ekspresif dari apa yang mereka sebut "Reformasi Katolisitas" [22] dan mempertahankan argumen mereka dari Protestan tradisional Pengakuan. [23]
[ edit ] Radical Reformation [Sunting] Radikal Reformasi

Unlike mainstream Evangelical ( Lutheran ), Reformed ( Zwinglian and Calvinist ) Protestant movements, the Radical Reformation , which had no state sponsorship, generally abandoned the idea of the "Church Visible" as distinct from the "Church Invisible". Tidak seperti Injili arus utama (Lutheran), Reformasi (Zwingli dan Calvinis) gerakan Protestan, dalam Radikal Reformasi, yang tidak punya negara sponsor, biasanya meninggalkan gagasan tentang "Gereja Visible" sebagai yang berbeda dengan "Gereja Invisible". It was a rational extension of the State-approved Protestant dissent, which took the value of independence from constituted authority a step further, arguing the same for the civic realm. Itu adalah perluasan rasional Negara-disetujui Protestan perbedaan pendapat, yang mengambil nilai kemerdekaan dari otoritas merupakan satu langkah lebih jauh, dengan alasan yang sama untuk wilayah sipil.

Protestant ecclesial leaders such as Hubmaier and Hofmann preached the invalidity of infant baptism, advocating baptism as following conversion, called "believer's baptism" , instead. Pemimpin gereja Protestan seperti Hubmaier dan Hofmann berkhotbah ketidakberlakuan baptisan bayi, menganjurkan baptisan pertobatan sebagai berikut, yang disebut "baptisan orang percaya", instead.

In the view of many associated with the Radical Reformation, the Magisterial Reformation had not gone far enough, with radical reformer, Andreas von Bodenstein Karlstadt , for example, referring to the Lutheran theologians at Wittenberg as the "new papists". [ 24 ] A more political side of the Radical Reformation can be seen in the thought and practice of Hans Hut , although typically Anabaptism has been associated with pacifism. Dalam pandangan banyak berhubungan dengan Radikal Reformasi, Reformasi magisterial belum pergi cukup jauh, dengan radikal pembaharu, Andreas von Bodenstein Karlstadt, misalnya, merujuk pada teolog Lutheran di Wittenberg sebagai "Papists baru". [24] A lebih banyak sisi politik dari Reformasi Radikal dapat dilihat dalam pemikiran dan praktek Hans Hut, walaupun biasanya Anabaptisme telah dikaitkan dengan pasifisme.

Early Anabaptists were severely persecuted by both Calvinist and Catholic civil authorities. Anabaptis awal yang sangat dianiaya oleh kedua Calvinis dan Katolik otoritas sipil.
[ edit ] Movements within Protestantism [Sunting] Pergerakan dalam Protestanisme
Evolution of major branches and movements within Protestantism Evolusi cabang utama dan gerakan dalam Protestanisme
[ edit ] Pietism and Methodism [Sunting] Pietisme dan Methodisme
Main articles: Pietism and Methodism Artikel utama: Pietisme dan Methodisme

The German Pietist movement, together with the influence of the Puritan Reformation in England in the seventeenth century, were important influences upon John Wesley and Methodism , as well as new groups such as the Religious Society of Friends ("Quakers") and the Moravian Brethren from Herrnhut , Saxony , Germany. Jerman pietis gerakan, bersama dengan pengaruh Puritan Reformasi di Inggris pada abad ketujuh belas, itu penting pengaruh pada John Wesley dan Methodis, serta kelompok-kelompok baru seperti Religious Society of Friends ( "Quaker") dan Moravia Ikhwan dari Herrnhut, Sachsen, Jerman.

The practice of a spiritual life, typically combined with social engagement, predominates in classical Pietism, which was a protest against the doctrine-centeredness Protestant Orthodoxy of the times, in favor of depth of religious experience. Praktek kehidupan rohani, biasanya dikombinasikan dengan keterlibatan sosial, menonjol dalam Pietisme klasik, yang merupakan protes terhadap doktrin-berpusat Ortodoks Protestan zaman, yang mendukung kedalaman pengalaman religius. Many of the more conservative Methodists went on to form the Holiness movement , which emphasized a rigorous experience of holiness in practical, daily life. Banyak yang lebih konservatif Methodis melanjutkan untuk membentuk gerakan Bapa Suci, yang menekankan pengalaman yang ketat kekudusan dalam praktis, kehidupan sehari-hari.
[ edit ] Evangelicalism [Sunting] Evangelikalisme
Main article: Evangelicalism Artikel utama: Evangelikalisme

Beginning at the end of eighteenth century, several international revivals of Pietism (such as the Great Awakening and the Second Great Awakening ) took place across denominational lines, largely in the English-speaking world. Dimulai pada akhir abad kedelapan belas, beberapa kebangkitan dari Pietisme internasional (seperti Kebangkitan Besar dan Kebangkitan Besar Kedua) berlangsung di garis-garis denominasi, terutama di dunia berbahasa Inggris. Their teachings and successor groupings are referred to generally as the Evangelical movement. Ajaran mereka dan penerus pengelompokan yang disebut secara umum sebagai gerakan Injili. The chief emphases of this movement were individual conversion, personal piety and Bible study, public morality often including Temperance and Abolitionism , de-emphasis of formalism in worship and in doctrine, a broadened role for laity (including women) in worship, evangelism and teaching, and cooperation in evangelism across denominational lines. Penekanan utama dari gerakan ini adalah konversi individu, kesalehan pribadi dan mempelajari Alkitab, moralitas publik sering termasuk Temperance dan Abolitionism, de-penekanan dari formalisme dalam ibadah dan dalam doktrin, peran yang lebih luas untuk awam (termasuk wanita) dalam ibadah, penginjilan dan pengajaran , dan kerjasama dalam penginjilan di garis kelompok keagamaan.
[ edit ] Adventism [Sunting] Adventisme
Main article: Adventism Artikel utama: Adventisme

Adventism, as a movement, began in the United States in middle nineteenth century. Advent, sebagai gerakan, dimulai di Amerika Serikat pada pertengahan abad kesembilan belas. The Adventist family of churches are regarded today as conservative Protestants. [ 25 ] Keluarga Adventist gereja dianggap hari ini sebagai konservatif Protestan. [25]
[ edit ] Modernism and Liberalism [Sunting] Modernisme dan Liberalisme
Main article: Liberal Christianity Artikel utama: Liberal Christianity

Modernism and Liberalism do not constitute rigorous and well-defined schools of theology, but are rather an inclination by some writers and teachers to integrate Christian thought into the spirit of the Age of Enlightenment . Modernisme dan Liberalisme tidak merupakan teliti dan didefinisikan dengan baik sekolah-sekolah teologi, tetapi lebih merupakan kecenderungan oleh beberapa penulis dan guru untuk mengintegrasikan pemikiran Kristen ke dalam semangat Zaman Pencerahan. New understandings of history and the natural sciences of the day led directly to new approaches to theology. Pemahaman baru tentang sejarah dan ilmu-ilmu alam hari dipimpin langsung pendekatan baru untuk teologi.
[ edit ] Pentecostalism [Sunting] Pentakostalisme
Main article: Pentecostalism Artikel utama: Pentakostalisme

Pentecostalism, as a movement, began in the United States early in the twentieth century, starting especially within the Holiness movement. Pentakostalisme, sebagai gerakan, mulai di Amerika Serikat pada awal abad kedua puluh, memulai terutama dalam gerakan Bapa Suci. Seeking a return to the operation of New Testament gifts of the Holy Spirit, speaking in tongues as evidence of the "baptism of the Holy Ghost" or to make the unbeliever believe became the leading feature. Mencari kembali pengoperasian Perjanjian Baru karunia Roh Kudus, berbicara dalam bahasa roh sebagai bukti dari "baptisan Roh Kudus" atau untuk membuat orang kafir percaya menjadi fitur utama. Divine healing and miracles were also emphasized. Kesembuhan ilahi dan mukjizat juga ditekankan. Pentecostalism swept through much of the Holiness movement, and eventually spawned hundreds of new denominations in the United States. Pentakostalisme menyapu melalui banyak dari gerakan Holiness, dan akhirnya menelurkan ratusan denominasi baru di Amerika Serikat. A later "charismatic" movement also stressed the gifts of the Spirit, but often operated within existing denominations, rather than by coming out of them. Sebuah kemudian "karismatik" gerakan juga menekankan karunia Roh, tetapi sering beroperasi dalam kelompok-kelompok keagamaan yang ada, bukan dengan datang dari mereka.
[ edit ] Fundamentalism [Sunting] Fundamentalisme
Main article: Christian fundamentalism Artikel utama: fundamentalisme Kristen

In reaction to liberal Bible critique, fundamentalism arose in the twentieth century, primarily in the United States, among those denominations most affected by Evangelicalism. Sebagai reaksi terhadap kritik Alkitab liberal, fundamentalisme muncul pada abad kedua puluh, terutama di Amerika Serikat, di antara kelompok-kelompok keagamaan yang paling terpengaruh oleh Evangelikalisme. Fundamentalism placed primary emphasis on the authority and sufficiency of the Bible, and typically advised separation from error and cultural conservatism as an important aspect of the Christian life. Fundamentalisme ditempatkan tekanan utama pada otoritas dan kecukupan dari Alkitab, dan biasanya menyarankan pemisahan dari kesalahan dan konservatisme budaya sebagai aspek penting dari kehidupan Kristen.
[ edit ] Neo-orthodoxy [Sunting] Neo-ortodoksi
Main article: Neo-orthodoxy Artikel utama: Neo-ortodoksi

A non-fundamentalist rejection of liberal Christianity, associated primarily with Karl Barth , neo-orthodoxy sought to counter-act the tendency of liberal theology to make theological accommodations to modern scientific perspectives. Non-fundamentalis Kristen liberal penolakan, terutama terkait dengan Karl Barth, neo-ortodoksi berusaha untuk melawan-tindakan kecenderungan teologi liberal untuk membuat akomodasi teologis perspektif ilmu pengetahuan modern. Sometimes called "Crisis theology", according to the influence of philosophical existentialism on some important segments of the movement; also, somewhat confusingly, sometimes called neo-evangelicalism . Kadang-kadang disebut "Krisis teologi", menurut filsafat pengaruh eksistensialisme pada beberapa segmen penting dari gerakan ini, juga, agak membingungkan, kadang-kadang disebut neo-evangelisme.
[ edit ] New Evangelicalism [Sunting] New Evangelikalisme
Main article: Evangelicalism Artikel utama: Evangelikalisme

Evangelicalism is a movement from the middle of the twentieth century, that reacted to perceived excesses of Fundamentalism, adding to concern for biblical authority, an emphasis on liberal arts, cooperation among churches, Christian Apologetics , and non-denominational evangelization. Evangelisme adalah gerakan dari pertengahan abad kedua puluh, yang bereaksi terhadap ekses dianggap Fundamentalisme, menambah kepedulian terhadap otoritas Alkitab, penekanan pada seni liberal, kerjasama di antara gereja-gereja, Christian Apologetics, dan non-denominasi penginjilan.
[ edit ] Paleo-Orthodoxy [Sunting] Paleo-Ortodoksi
Main article: Paleo-orthodoxy Artikel utama: Paleo-ortodoksi

Paleo-orthodoxy is a movement similar in some respects to Neo-evangelicalism but emphasising the ancient Christian consensus of the undivided Church of the first millennium AD, including in particular the early Creeds and councils of the Church as a means of properly understanding the Scriptures. Paleo-ortodoksi merupakan sebuah gerakan serupa dalam beberapa hal untuk Neo-evangelisme tetapi menekankan konsensus Kristen kuno dari Gereja yang tak terbagi milenium pertama masehi, termasuk khususnya Kredo awal dan dewan-dewan dari Gereja sebagai sarana untuk memahami dengan baik Kitab Suci. This movement is cross-denominational and the theological giant of the movement is United Methodist theologian Thomas Oden . Gerakan ini adalah cross-kelompok keagamaan dan teologis dari gerakan raksasa ini adalah United Methodist teolog Thomas Oden.
[ edit ] Ecumenism [Sunting] Ekumenisme
Main article: Christian ecumenism Artikel utama: Kristen ekumenisme

The ecumenical movement has had an influence on mainline churches, beginning at least in 1910 with the Edinburgh Missionary Conference . Oikumene telah memiliki pengaruh utama gereja, dimulai setidaknya pada tahun 1910 dengan Konferensi Misionaris Edinburgh. Its origins lay in the recognition of the need for cooperation on the mission field in Africa, Asia and Oceania. Asal-usulnya terletak pada pengakuan tentang perlunya kerjasama di bidang misi di Afrika, Asia dan Oseania. Since 1948, the World Council of Churches has been influential, but ineffective in creating a united Church. Sejak tahun 1948, Dewan Gereja Dunia telah berpengaruh, tetapi tidak efektif dalam menciptakan Gereja bersatu. There are also ecumenical bodies at regional, national and local levels across the globe; but schisms still far outnumber unifications. Ada juga badan-badan ekumenis di tingkat regional, nasional dan lokal di seluruh dunia, tetapi masih jauh melebihi Skisma Unifikasi. One, but not the only expression of the ecumenical movement, has been the move to form united churches, such as the Church of South India , the Church of North India , The US-based United Church of Christ , The United Church of Canada , Uniting Church in Australia and the United Church of Christ in the Philippines which have rapidly declining memberships. Satu, tetapi bukan satu-satunya ekspresi dari gerakan ekumenis, telah bergerak untuk membentuk gereja-gereja bersatu, seperti Gereja India Selatan, di Gereja India Utara, yang berbasis di United Church of Christ, The United Church of Canada, Gereja Bersatu di Australia dan Amerika Gereja Kristus di Filipina yang telah menurun dengan cepat keanggotaan. There has been a strong engagement of Orthodox churches in the ecumenical movement, though the reaction of individual Orthodox theologians has ranged from tentative approval of the aim of Christian unity to outright condemnation of the perceived effect of watering down Orthodox doctrine. [2] Telah ada keterlibatan yang kuat Ortodoks gereja-gereja dalam gerakan ekumenis, meskipun reaksi teolog Ortodoks individu telah berkisar dari persetujuan tentatif tujuan kesatuan Kristen untuk langsung mengutuk efek yang dirasakan penyiraman bawah doktrin Ortodoks. [2]

A Protestant baptism is held to be valid in a Catholic church because it is a sacrament borrowed from the Catholic Church and derives its efficacy from Christ. Sebuah Protestan baptisan adalah dianggap sah dalam gereja Katolik karena itu adalah suatu sakramen yang dipinjam dari Gereja Katolik dan kemanjurannya berasal dari Kristus. However, Protestant ministers are not recognized as valid Church leaders, due to their lack of apostolic succession and their disunity from the Catholic Church . Namun, menteri Protestan tidak diakui sebagai pemimpin Gereja yang valid, karena kurangnya mereka suksesi apostolik dan perpecahan dari Gereja Katolik. Therefore, laymen who convert are not re-baptized, although Protestant ministers who convert are ordained to the Catholic priesthood (cf Apostolicae Curae ). Oleh karena itu, orang awam yang tidak mengkonversi dibaptis ulang, meskipun menteri Protestan yang pindah yang ditahbiskan menjadi imam Katolik (bdk. Apostolicae Curae).

In 1999, the representatives of Lutheran World Federation and Catholic Church signed The Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification , apparently resolving the conflict over the nature of Justification which was at the root of the Protestant Reformation , although some conservative Lutherans did not agree to this resolution. Pada tahun 1999, wakil dari Federasi Lutheran se-Dunia dan Gereja Katolik menandatangani Para Deklarasi Bersama tentang Doktrin Pembenaran, tampaknya menyelesaikan konflik atas sifat Pembenaran yang berada di akar Reformasi Protestan, meskipun beberapa konservatif Lutheran tidak setuju untuk ini resolusi. This is understandable, since there is no compelling authority within them. Ini dapat dipahami, karena tidak ada otoritas kuat dalam diri mereka. On July 18, 2006 Delegates to the World Methodist Conference voted unanimously to adopt the Joint Declaration. [3] [4] Pada tanggal 18 Juli 2006 Delegasi ke Konferensi Methodis Dunia sepakat untuk mengadopsi Deklarasi Bersama. [3] [4]
[ edit ] Founders: the first Protestant major reformers and theologians [Sunting] Pendiri: Protestan pertama reformis besar dan teolog

Twelfth century Abad kedua belas

* Peter Waldo , French reformer, founder of the earliest Protestant church, the Waldensians Peter Waldo, Perancis reformator, pendiri gereja Protestan yang paling awal, yang Waldensia

Fourteenth century Abad keempat belas

* John Wycliffe , English reformer, the "Morning Star of the Reformation". John Wycliffe, Inggris pembaharu, yang "Bintang Fajar Reformasi".

Fifteenth century Abad kelima belas

* Jan Hus , Catholic Priest and Professor, father of an early Protestant church (Moravianism), Czech reformist/dissident; burned to death in Constance , Holy Roman Empire in 1415 by Roman Catholic Church authorities for unrepentant and persistent heresy. Jan Hus, Imam Katolik dan Profesor, ayah dari awal gereja Protestan (Moravianism), Ceko reformis / pembangkang; dibakar sampai mati di Konstanz, Kekaisaran Romawi Suci pada tahun 1415 oleh otoritas Gereja Katolik Roma untuk bertobat dan gigih bidah. After the devastation of the Hussite Wars some of his followers founded the Unitas Fratrum in 1457, "Unity of Brethren", which was renewed under the leadership of Count Zinzendorf in Herrnhut , Saxony in 1722 after its almost total destruction in the 30 Years War and Counter Reformation . Setelah kehancuran dari Perang Hussit sebagian pengikutnya mendirikan Fratrum Unitas pada tahun 1457, "Kesatuan Ikhwan", yang diperbaharui di bawah pimpinan Count von Zinzendorf di Herrnhut, Sachsen pada tahun 1722 setelah hampir kehancuran total dalam 30 Years Perang dan counter Reformasi. Today it is usually referred to in English as the Moravian Church , in German the Herrnhuter Brüdergemeine . Hari ini biasanya disebut dalam bahasa Inggris sebagai Gereja Moravia, di Jerman yang Herrnhuter Brüdergemeine.

Sixteenth century Abad keenam belas

* Jacobus Arminius , Dutch theologian, founder of school of thought known as Arminianism . Jacobus Arminius, teolog Belanda, pendiri mazhab pemikiran yang dikenal sebagai Arminianisme.
* Heinrich Bullinger , successor of Zwingli , leading reformed theologian. Heinrich Bullinger, pengganti Zwingli, teolog terkemuka direformasi.
* John Calvin , French theologian, Reformer and resident of Geneva, Switzerland , he founded the school of theology known as Calvinism. John Calvin, teolog perancis, Reformis dan penduduk Jenewa, Swiss, ia mendirikan sekolah teologi yang dikenal sebagai Calvinisme.
* Balthasar Hubmaier , influential Anabaptist theologian, author of numerous works during his five years of ministry, tortured at Zwingli's behest, and executed in Vienna. Hubmaier Balthasar, teolog Anabaptis berpengaruh, pengarang sejumlah karya selama lima tahun pelayanan, disiksa di atas perintah Zwingli, dan dieksekusi di Wina.
* John Knox , Scottish Calvinist reformer. John Knox, Calvinis reformator Skotlandia.
* Martin Luther , church reformer, Father of Protestantism [ 26 ] [ 27 ] , theological works guided those now known as Lutherans . Martin Luther, reformator gereja, Bapa Protestantisme [26] [27], karya teologis petunjuk orang-orang yang kini dikenal sebagai Lutheran.
* Philipp Melanchthon , early Lutheran leader. Philipp Melanchthon, pemimpin Lutheran awal.
* Menno Simons , founder of Mennonitism . Menno Simons, pendiri Mennonitism.
* John Smyth , early Baptist leader. John Smyth, awal Baptis pemimpin.
* Huldrych Zwingli , founder of Swiss reformed tradition. Ulrich Zwingli, pendiri tradisi Swiss direformasi.

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